Arsenic, calcium arsenate and the boll weevil. by Ambruster, Howard Watson Download PDF EPUB FB2
Arsenic, Calcium Arsenate and The Boll Weevil. Articles and Addresses by Howard W. Ambruster. New York Nov. Brr‐Erhardt Press. Inc. West, 19th Street. Free 2-day shipping. Buy Boll Weevil Control with Syrup (or Molasses) and Calcium Arsenate at The last boll weevil in Alabama was reported in (R.H.
Smith, ). The boll weevil was largely eliminated from most other states in the southern USA by This century-long experience with the boll weevil demonstrated three major points. First, boll weevil spread was facilitated by extensive cultivation of a primary host.
During the early 20th century, calcium arsenate was the number one pesticide used by growers to fight the cotton boll weevil.
"There's a legacy of arsenic in some of those fields," Joshua Hamilton. From tocalcium arsenate pesticide was used intensively to combat the boll weevil and was imported to Lancashire in cotton bales. The calcium arsenate era is consistent with the high-prevalence findings in and the decline inallowing for time by: The experiments here described were made in field-cages, the cotton plants being treated with either calcium arsenate or lead arsenate or left untreated as a control, some cages in each class being protected, from all rain and dew.
Further experiments were made to find the amount of poison in the dew on treated plants, and the effect of this, dew on the weevils [Anthonomus grandis] when.
Lancashire cotton came predominantly from the American cotton belt. From tocalcium arsenate pesticide was used intensively to combat the boll weevil and was imported to Lancashire in cotton bales.
The calcium arsenate era is consistent with the high-prevalence findings in and the decline inallowing for time lags. In order to account for calcium arsenate used exclusively for boll-weevil and grasshopper control, it is assumed that 50% of the US consumption of calcium arsenate occurred for this use between and and that the remaining 50% was available for other uses on vegetables and white potatoes throughout the country.
Professor B. Coad, Tallulah, La. Dear Sir: I have read with much satisfaction your paper of July 6,on the use of syrup or molasses and calcium arsenate for controlling the boll weevil, and note your suggestion that the syrup or molasses mixture is more efficacious when applied to young cotton and when the plant is small.
Try the new Google Books. Check out the new look and enjoy easier access to your favorite features. Try it now. The Florida or Square Stripping Method of Boll Arsenic Control. Hibernated Weevils on Nondusted Cotton Plants Ingestion of Calcium Arsenate by the Boll Weevil Poison Ingestion Experiments The only chemical now recommended for boll-weevil poisoning consists of calcium arsenate which conforms to the specifications de- scribed.
Attempts have been made to utilize various mixtures of arsenicals or dilutions of calcium arsenate. Dusting Cotton With Calcium Arsenate for Boll Weevil Control (Second Progress Report) By J.
Robinson, Entomologist and F. Arant, Assistant Arsenic COTTON dusting tests with calcium arsenate for the control of the boll weevil were made in and on three dis- tinct types of soil,-namely, Norfolk sandy loam at Auburn.
The system of poisoning described in this bulletin does not aim at the extermination of the boll-weevil [Anthonomus grandis], but only at a sufficient reduction of infestation to permit the maturing of a full crop of cotton.
This depends on the habit of the cotton plant of producing much more fruit than it is able to mature. About GO per cent. of the squares fail to reach maturity as bolls, and. Good control of boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) was obtained by applications of 8 to 10 Ib.
per ac. of calcium arsenate, or 10 to 12 Ib. per ac. of either 20% Toxaphene or (a mixture of 3% gamma isomer BHC, 5% DDT and 40% sulphur). The use of calcium arsenate, alone, tended to build up aphid (Aphis gossypii) populations, but when combined with 3% nicotine, was effective against aphid.
Scientists say that a major source of inorganic arsenic in rice from the American southeast is from pesticide residues, seeping from lands once used to raise cotton.
During the early 20th century, calcium arsenate was the number one pesticide used by growers to fight the cotton boll weevil.”. For the boll weevil, one presquare poisoning may be applied if it appears that there are numerous overwintered weevils present.
This should be given just as squares begin to forn. Then apply the regular series of three or more dust applications of calcium arsenate. The Boll-Weevil Problem. 27 from the use of mixtures of calcium arsenate and molasses.
In other districts, however, it has been shown quite definitely that the use of the dust application of poison is preferable even during this period. CONTACT POISONS.
Poisons designed to kill the boll weevil by suffocating them have been proposed. Changes in application equipment, coupled with the shift to calcium arsenate insecticide, allowed successful control of boll weevil from about until DDT was introduced following World War II.
In27 to 32 million kilograms of calcium arsenate were used by US farmers to control boll weevil. with powdered calcium arsenate by a specialized method.
It has long been known that poisoning the boll weevil is possible to a certain extent, but on account of the peculiar habits of the insect it was difficult to develop methods for the application of the poison.
A profitable method, however, has now been developed by the. Hamsters were given weekly intratracheal instillations of calcium arsenate dust suspensions. Animals were killed at weekly intervals and the concn of arsenic was determined in lung, liver, and hair by atomic absorption spectrophotometry following wet digestion and arsine generation.
Animals treated with calcium arsenate had concn of As in the lung about times higher than that of. of calcium arsenate. The Presquare Application The presquare treatment should be given only on those fields where the overwintered weevils are unusually abundant in the early spring.
It should be made just when the cotton begins to square. Either calcium-arsenate dust or a mixture of calcium arsenate and molasses may be used for this treatment. Creation Information. Hunter, W. (Walter David), & Coad, B. June Context. This book is part of the collection entitled: Government Documents A to Z Digitization Project and was provided by the UNT Libraries Government Documents Department to the UNT Digital Library, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries.
Calcium arsenate was adopted for control in aboutand its use soon reac tons per year. This marked a new scale of area-wide pesticide treatment with its attendant environmental and human safety problems.
The social and economic impact of the weevil was incalculable. The prosperity of the South evolved around a single crop, cotton. the late s.
Calcium arsenate was a heavily used arsenical in the early to mids, mainly in the southern United States to control grasshoppers and the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis (Boheman). It was also used as a general insecticide on a variety of vegetable crops (Murphy and Aucott, ).
The most heavily used. boll-weevil, calcium arsenate dust is commonly used in amounts varying from 20 to 50 pounds an acre annually. Therefore, relatively large amounts of arsenic are added to the soil in a comparatively short time. It is beyond the scope of this paper to review studies of the physiological effects of arsenic upon plants except to mention that it is.
Paris green to finely divided calcium arsenate (40% As). In contrast to Paris green, Ca arsenate had low specific weight, and did not cause skin sores or plant injury. A number of researchers in the s reported that application of Ca arsenate for cotton boll weevil control had reduced the productivity of.
The change of calcium arsenate to calcium carbonate will release arsenic in the environment. For pH ranging from andthe total arsenate concentrations in aque-ous solutions in equilibrium with calcium arsenates are around times higher than the maximum.
The Boll Weevil Eradication Program is a program sponsored by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) which has sought to eradicate the boll weevil in the cotton-growing areas of the United 's one of the world's most successful implementations of integrated pest program has enabled cotton farmers to reduce their use of pesticides by between %, and.
calcium arsenate as necessary to give satisfactory boll weevil control, in order to reduce the danger of arsenic injury to the soil. 1/ For cotton growing on light sandy soils where soil injury may occur, a mixture of equal parts of calcium arsenate and slaked lime, talic, clay, or sulfur is recommended.
Consequently, the leafworm does not injure the crop and is really often beneficial, because it removes the food supply of the boll weevils. The use of calcium arsenate to control the boll weevil also prevents leafworm damage ; thus such poisoned fields are not subject to injury until boll-weevil.
If elapsed time since ingestion of calcium arsenate is unknown or suspected to be greater than 30 minutes, do not induce vomiting and proceed to Step should not be administered to children under 6 months of g: Ingestion of calcium arsenate may result in sudden onset of seizures or loss of consciousness.The first Alabama experiments involving calcium arsenate were in at Auburn, Hartford and Smyrna, Alabama.
Inimproved weevil control was obtained by applying undiluted calcium arsenate dust by airplane. This technique had been used the previous year to control the cotton leafworm.
Dusting with calcium arsenate from air.Calcium arsenate is the best poison to control the cotton boll veevil—and it must be just right or it will kill the cotton.
Last year a great deal of poor calcium arsenate was on the market. Some of it contained so much water soluble arsenic that it would kill the cotton and some of it contained so little arsenic that it would not kill the.